Preparation Vermicompost by using Paddy straw , Water hyacinth and Khesari
Vermi compost is a method of recycling of non-toxic organic Waste and the organic manure produced by earthworms. Vermicompost is an effective means of composting the decomposable organic wastes using earthworms naturally present in the soil. Vermicompost is a mixture of worm casts enriched with macro and micronutrients and also with some growth regulating substances such as gibberellins and auxins and some useful micro flora (Azospirillum ,Actinomyces) etc. soils with casts contain 5 times nitrogen, 7 times phosphorus, 11 times potash, 2 times magnesium and 7-8 times actinomyces more than in soils without earth worm casts. The nutrient level of vermicompost is higher than any other compost (1-1.5% N, 0.6-0.8% P and 1.2- 1.5% K). It is well stated/informed that earthworms can consume all types of organic matter and convert them into available form of nutrients.
Some basic characteristics of suitable earthworm species:
- The Earthworms should have high consumption, digestion and assimilation rate.
- The Earthworms culturing techniques should be simple enough to adopt.
- The Earthworms should be tolerant to all disease.
- The Earthworm should efficiently convert plant or animal biomass, in to body protein, so that its growth rate is high.
Vermicompost preparation is very simple and easy ,for that it needs Some careful, step-wise preparations. Site selection for the compost preparation and Collection or procurement of suitable earthworm species (generally local varieties) are the important steps for its preparation.
Materials required : Ingredients for the preparation of vermicompost :
- One portion of soil, two portions of raw organic matter (leaf, weed, water hyacinth without root, compost, waste material of animals and birds) and three portions of dry straw, husk of paddy and khesari (legume crops)
- Requisite amount of water for maintaining the mass at 40–50% moisture.
Process of vermicompost using water hyacinth , paddy staw and khesari :
The organic matter(with all the above proportions ) is first mixed with water within a pit. The upper portion of the pit is next covered with mud. After 4–5 weeks, when the whole mixture is semi-rotten, it has to be mixed thoroughly and within one or two days, proper aeration is has to be provided. In this way, semi-rotten compost is formed. Then earthworms should be introduced into this partially decomposed material. Approximately 100–150 earthworms are needed for every kilo of semi rotten compost. After four to five weeks, the total process of vermicompost is completed.
Importance of varmicompost:
Vermi Compost improves the soil physical condition . It increases the water-holding capacity of the soil and it also increases the soil permeability. The general capacity of the soil to provide nutrition to the plant also improves and making the growth of the plants easy in such soils. It is very rich in microorganisms, especially bacteria and fungi. When it is incorporated into the soil, various processes like ammonification, nitrification and nitrogen fixation are also accelerated in soil .Vermicompost is the , organic matter it is when added to clay soil, loosens the soil and it creates passages for the entry of air. Some secretions of Earth worms and the associated microbes in Vermicompost they acts as growth promoters along with other nutrients. It improves the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. Soil incorporated with vermi compost provides nutrients to the soil and influence the growth and yield of crops.